This is by no means an extensive list, and I am very new to Ubuntu, my exposure to Linux is from a Server background with CLI only. Anyhow, this is what I have learnt so far..
During my repeated installs of Ubuntu, I have found a number of very useful applications:
|If Unity does not launch||Start a Terminal/SSH Session
sudo apt-get install compizconfig-settings-manager
Add Unity & other features back to desktop
|Install SSH Support||sudo apt-get install openssh-server|
|Install Desktop GUI||
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
|Install PUTTY (SSH from a Windows PC)||http://www.putty.org/|
|Install Acrobat Reader||sudo add-apt-repository “deb http://archive.canonical.com/ precise partner”sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install acroread
Install alternate GUI’s, useful if you have to install the Server version, due to video card issues.